Example: www.codingpointer.com This is corresponding to the numeric address mentioned above.
Ethernet is a networking protocol, specified by the IEEE 802.3 standard. Most wired network interface cards (NICs) communicate using Ethernet.
In an Ethernet network, the hosts connected to the network communicate by exchanging frames. Every host on an Ethernet network is uniquely identified by an address called the media access control (MAC) address.
IP addresses are broken up into two parts: a network number and a host identifier. Two hosts are on the same subnet if they have the same network number.
To find the network number from the IP address, needs to know the netmask associated with the IP.
A netmask indicates how many of the bits in the 32-bit IP address make up the network number.
There are two types to express a netmask:
Hosts connected to a network use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to dynamically obtain IP addresses. A DHCP server hands out the IP addresses to network hosts, which are the DHCP clients
The Internet Protocol (IP) specifies how to route packets between hosts that are connected to different local networks. IP relies on special network hosts called routers or gateways.
In the OSI model of networking protocols IP occupies the third layer, known as the network layer.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most commonly used layer 4 protocol in networked applications. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol: it uses a client-server model where a client connects to a server, where server refers to the application that receives connections.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is another layer 4 protocol that is the basis of several well-known networking protocols. UDP is a connectionless protocol: two applications that communicate over UDP do not need to establish a connection before exchanging data. UDP is also an unreliable protocol. The operating system does not attempt to retransmit or even detect lost UDP packets.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a protocol used for sending control messages over an IP network.
Switches are Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) devices to enable packets to travel from one node to another and connects the hosts that belong to the same layer-2 network. Switches are used to just forwarding of the packet received on one port (input) to another port (output).
Routers are special devices to enable packets to travel from one layer-3 network to another. Routers enable communication between two nodes on different layer-3 networks that are not directly connected to each other.
Firewalls are used to regulate traffic to and from a host or a network. A firewall can be either a specialized device connecting two networks or a software-based filtering mechanism implemented on an operating system
Load balancers can be software-based or hardware-based devices that allow traffic to evenly be distributed across several servers. By distributing the traffic across multiple servers, it avoids overload of a single server thereby preventing a single point of failure in the product. This further improves the performance, network throughput, and response time of the servers.« Previous Next »